If you have an algae problem in your pond, then this article is for you. We will discuss various ways to eliminate the algae and restore your pond back to its original beauty. These methods are easy and do not require any special equipment or knowledge of chemistry!
Filamentous algae in the pond? Congratulations, the garden pond is healthy, the water quality is good. The algae just must not get out of hand.
Two types of algae are interesting for the garden pond, filamentous algae, and floating algae.
Algae are a symptom, they appear when the conditions are present. In healthy water algae naturally appear and disappear.
A garden pond is a closed system due to the use of a pond liner. The water balance is partially deprived of its ability to clean itself. It is up to us to provide for an approximately natural balance. Therefore, a pond owner must also deal with algae.
Proper fertilizing grapevine will help you get a strong vine with rich green leaves and massive juicy bunches. In matters of viticulture, there are enough myths that are important to dispel before leaving.
Some gardeners believe that root fertilization is required only for young seedlings, and a 10-year-old plant does not need anything, since it gets everything it needs from the soil. In fact, everything is exactly the opposite. A large bush pulls out useful elements from the soil, especially strongly – during flowering and fruiting. At this time, not only nitrogen is pulled out of the soil, but also phosphorus and potassium. The young vine uses the seedling fertilizer that has been applied to the hole. Therefore, in the next couple of years, seedlings practically do not need anything.
An adult bush will need to fertilize at least 3 times. The first is a week before flowering (nitrogen, ammonia). The second is 2 weeks before the formation of the fetus. The third – 10 days before ripeness. Thanks to this scheme of application, optimal care is provided, and the vine receives the necessary minerals and trace elements.
The first time you need to fertilizing grapevine before the flowering period. It is recommended to use liquid formulations. Manure diluted in water is poured under the root (about 2 kg of mullein per bucket of water). This volume is enough for processing 1 sq. m plot. Instead of mullein, chicken droppings are also suitable, but in a lower concentration so as not to damage the roots. Typically, 40 g of droppings are taken per 10 liters of water, the volume is used per 1 sq. m.
Mineral fertilizer for the growth of grapes is a mixture of 10 liters of water, 65 g of nitrophos, 5-7 g of boric acid. These rates are suitable for the first feeding. For the second treatment, which is scheduled 2 weeks before fruit set, formulations with nitrogen are selected. For 10 liters of water, take up to 10 g of potassium magnesia and 20 g of ammonium nitrate. The volume is spent on 1 sq. m. The second feeding is carried out in a week with a similar composition. The third feeding is planned 2 weeks before harvest. It is necessary to increase the mass of the bunches and improve the taste characteristics. Use 10 l of water with the addition of 20 g of potassium and the same amount of superphosphate. Manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 works well.
The listed processing methods are the best if you want to get a high yield, tasty berries and a hardy vine.
Choosing between leaf and root method
Plants receive useful substances not only from the ground, but also they are absorbed by the leaves. For this top dressing must be well dissolved in water. Comparing what foliar (leaf) dressing for grapes is better than root fertilization, the following aspects are noted:
the soil dissolves the introduced substances for a long time, so they get to the plant after a certain time. The leaves instantly absorb trace elements, they are absorbed almost immediately, which is noticeable after a couple of days. The assimilation of nutrients is doubled;
the cost of foliar feeding is half as much, since the concentration of solutions is reduced and the volume obtained is enough to process a larger area;
there is no reaction of the soil with fertilizer. During contact with the ground, some components of the bait dissolve before reaching the plant, others give a negative reaction;
spraying is faster than watering each bush. The consumption of water, fertilizers, labor costs is reduced.
In addition to the advantages, it is worth mentioning the disadvantage of foliar treatment – the rapid weathering of the liquid from the leaves. Therefore, when choosing which fertilizers are needed for planting grapes and subsequent care, it is important to approach the solution of the problem in an integrated manner – take root dressings as a basis, and as a supplement – on a leaf.
When and why soil and plants are cultivated
Some summer residents do not think about how timely and correctly they apply complex universal fertilizer for grapes. As a result, the soil is impregnated with nitrate, potassium, ammonia and other mixtures in an uncontrolled amount. This approach not only harms the plant, but also fraught with a deterioration in product quality.
To understand what the vine really needs in a particular period, scientific methods and recognition of signs of deterioration of the plant’s condition will help. The most expensive way is to test the composition of the soil and grape juice in a laboratory. With an accuracy of 85%, the results will show what the soil is lacking and when to add additives. The analysis is carried out every couple of years.
A less expensive option is to evaluate the appearance of the vine. The complexity of this option lies in the variability of the reasons affecting the deterioration of the state of leaves, stems and bunches. Given that the data obtained are distorted by weather conditions, and there can be many reasons, this method is not the best.
The third way is to collect leaves from apparently healthy shrubs and one that looks bad. The laboratory technicians will compare the analyzes and tell you what is missing in the soil. Leaf analysis can be done every 2 months before the next fertilization.
Laser level – a device for plotting horizontally or vertically in the form of lines or dots using LEDs. Laser levels are used on construction sites, in landscape design, as well as for the repair of apartments and houses. Easy control, affordable price and compact size make laser levels affordable for everyone. Using the laser level, you can quickly and easily paste wallpapers, lay tiles, hang a picture or a shelf. It is enough to turn on the device, press the button and direct the beam to the surface – a straight line or perpendicular is ready, you can start work.
The choice of models on the market is wide, from the cheapest Chinese options to professional laser levels. In a large number of characteristics it is easy to get confused, but everyone can find and buy the best laser level suitable for the work performed.
How To Use Laser Levels
What to look for when choosing a level?
Type of device – a static laser level is able to cope with most tasks when repairing an apartment or a house, you can choose a universal device that can project both lines and points. The rotation level is of high cost and is used only by professionals at large construction sites.
Manufacturer – to achieve high accuracy results, you should choose a tool with good optics, a reliable body and high-quality diodes. Companies such as Leica, Spectra Precision can guarantee the high quality and reliability of the equipment supplied.
Operating range – for working in a room, as a rule, a working distance of VM is enough, for working on a construction site it is worth choosing a beam range of more than 20 meters, and professional devices, for example, of a rotary type, can spread the beam to a distance of 300 or more meters.
The accuracy of the device – the error of budget models of unknown brands can be high, but the equipment of popular brands can provide accuracy of up to 5-1 mm at a distance of tens of meters. The most accurate are the laser levels of the rotary type. To ensure projection accuracy, it is necessary to periodically check the laser level.
Self-leveling system – when choosing a device, we advise you to pay attention to the laser level self-leveling, this greatly simplifies the work making it fast and accurate.
The number and direction of the rays – the simplest and cheapest models of the laser level can project one or two beams, this is enough to perform simple tasks, but to solve more complex ones, you should buy a laser level with a turn of the degrees of the rays, the price of such a device is higher, but apart from building the horizontal and vertically, it can direct the beam to the right, left, and also project points. A large number of beams allows several specialists to do the work simultaneously, for example, laying tiles on opposite walls.
Options – a device, a set of batteries or a battery, instructions are included in the standard package, sometimes a case for storage is included in the standard package, but often it has to be purchased separately. In professional devices, the kit may include a target and special glasses, as well as radiation detectors, these devices allow you to work over long distances.
Type of fastening – to repair a house, it is enough to buy a laser level, which can be used by placing the device on the floor. But to work outdoors, you need a tripod for the laser level, which can be bundled with the device or must be purchased separately, given the size of the thread.
Price – the cost of the laser level can vary dozens of times, but everyone knows that if you buy the cheapest laser level, you should not expect the same result from it as from a high-quality device
The drill is designed to drill holes in various surfaces. What other functions can it perform and what to consider when buying, read in our short guide for choosing this power tool.
Professional or household?
Depending on how often you intend to use the drill, you can understand which model you need: professional or household. If you plan to work with the tool every day, and even for several hours, choose from a number of professional ones; otherwise, it will quickly fail. If you need a drill from time to time, opt for household models: they are equipped with a less powerful engine, however, unlike professional ones, they have wider functionality and are cheaper.
The hammerless drill has the functions of drilling and screwing-unscrewing fasteners. The absence of a percussion mechanism allows you to make holes of high accuracy, provides a compact size and light weight of the device, however, due to this, such a drill can only be used with materials of low strength.
The hammer drill is equipped with a hammer mechanism. This means that in addition to rotational, the drill head also performs translational movements back and forth. Such a function increases the torque of the device, which guarantees the possibility of drilling even very hard materials: concrete, brick, natural and artificial stone. Such a drill can also be used as a screwdriver.
A drill / driver is designed for screwing and unscrewing screws and self-tapping screws, but, unlike a simple screwdriver, it is equipped with a drilling function. This device is an indispensable assistant in the assembly of furniture. The drill mixer mixes various construction solutions, glue, paint. Suitable for drilling, but not hard surfaces. Such drills have high power and torque, but there is no shock function.
The best cordless drills may not have constant power and maximum torque from a wired electric drill powered by AC, but for most DIY applications they are much more convenient and powerful enough. During the blocking, they sold very well, so if Britain has more shelves, now that the worst of it will end.
Modern cordless drills offer more features than ever, thanks in large part to the advent of a lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries are not only lighter than older nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries – they significantly save weight on the wrist and forearm – they also hold a charge when not in use, and do not mind charging them half empty .
The key factor is the voltag. Simply put, the higher the battery voltage, the more power and torque you will have to drill through durable materials such as steel, especially concrete and brick.
As an added bonus, all cordless drills serve two purposes: drilling and screwdriving. Combined drills are slightly different in that they also include impact for heavy masonry. If you live in an apartment with plasterboard walls, most likely you do not need this extra power.
Most instructors in this review will do the basic things themselves, but it goes without saying that you get what you pay for. More expensive models are invariably better built and add more energy to your elbow.
Every gardener wants his plants to develop quickly and not get sick. To achieve excellent results, you need to worry about the health of crops in the first stages of life. In the review, we will tell you what fertilizers are needed when planting grapes and how to apply them correctly.
Human began growing cultivated plants several thousand years ago. During this period, gardeners found that the ingestion of certain substances into the soil improves the health and development of green spaces. Excess funds can slow growth or kill crops. Through trial and error, the algorithms of actions necessary for growing plants without problems were built.
Grapes are quite capricious and demanding fruit vine. The homeland of its growth was the warm, humid climate of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. Domestic weather conditions did not always meet the needs of the vines and the plant died. However, with early application of fertilizers to the soil, winegrowers noted rapid survival and excellent growth.
Regular top dressing is one of the basic requirements of a capricious culture. In adulthood, their number depends on:
growth of young shoots;
flowering and pollination;
holding the ovary;
Violation of the fertilizer cycle will lead to adverse consequences. The dropping of flowers or the formation of small fruits is one of the unpleasant results of the lack of minerals in the fruit vine. If the plant does not receive enough nutrition during the ripening period, then the berries will be small and acidic.
What do young grapes need
Planting seedlings takes place on a pillow with a nutritious “cocktail” of mineral and organic substances. The combination of several drugs improves the rooting of the fruit crop and gives strength to build roots and green mass. What fertilizers does a growing seedling need?
In adult grapes, beneficial substances are concentrated in the bark and trunk, therefore, it can “pull out” a small lack of nutrition from stocks. Young plants do not have such “stash” and an experienced gardener pre-worries about feeding.
When planting seedlings, a hole is poured 2-3 buckets of humus of chicken manure or manure. Remember: you can not use an organic preparation that has not gone through the fermentation process. If you add fresh substance, then the grapes will die. When decaying, elements incompatible with roots are produced.
Such top dressing is an excellent source of nitrogen, an integral part of all plants. In liquid form, the substance is mixed with soil, making the most ordinary soil in composition similar to healthy humus.
Phosphorus is another component important for plant development. Seedlings that are just starting to form are in dire need of it. In the soil it is contained in a scanty amount – not more than 1%. There are almost no readily available compounds for young animals. Therefore, for the agricultural industry developed a complex fertilizer – superphosphate. In addition to the main component, it also contains:
From 150 to 300 g of the drug is added to the well with the seedling. Remember: minerals are not an alternative to organic top dressing. Therefore, experienced gardeners never forget to apply both types of fertilizer.
For plants to become strong and hardy, potassium is needed for their development. Drought, frost can kill seedlings in the first weeks after planting in open ground. The substance is not included in the organic composition of the fruit vine, so it must be applied manually.
Potassium sulfate is an industrial drug developed by chemists to help farmers. All substances are readily available to young plants and are quickly absorbed. It is used on soils of different types and at all times of the year. In the pit for planting grapes must be added from 100 to 200 g of the desired product.
Wood ash is an ancient fertilizer that was used by ancient agrarians in slash-and-burn agriculture. In an unprepossessing-looking powder, the necessary elements are present:
The substance does not contain chlorine, which does not like grapes so much, therefore it is necessarily added to the pits during planting. If you pour up to 1 liter of ash into the hole, then the soil is enriched with minerals and beneficial microflora for the roots of the plant. The composition of the soil improves, gaining greater nutritional value. The powder lasts up to 4 years.
Peat is an additional component needed for the growth of grape seedlings. It is used as a source of carbon and hydrogen, and is also used to hold substances from mineral and organic fertilizers in the soil.
Grape seedlings are planted in spring or autumn. To do this, prepare the holes according to the scheme of 80 by 80 cm. If planting is planned in cool regions, then the depth is increased to 1 m. The holes are watered several times and allow time to settle.
Drainage is a must when planting grapes. If you do not think in advance how to divert the liquid from the roots of the plant, then with abundant watering or prolonged rainfall there is a danger of fungal diseases and rot. Therefore, a layer of broken brick and expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pit.
Mineral and organic matter mixed with the earth in the hole. From above it is slightly crushed by soil with sand. Poor soils are enriched with peat. A seedling is carefully planted on this pillow and covered with soil. Plants are abundantly watered with settled water.
When planting grapes in this way, experienced gardeners know that youngsters will have enough nutrients until the next season, so during the first vegetative period, you should not additionally make any other preparations. After wintering, seedlings are abundantly watered and fed. Following our recommendations, you will get healthy plants.
For long-term storage, only medium and late ripening varieties with a thick skin and elastic flesh are suitable.
The brushes together with a piece of vine 8-10 cm are cut off with secateurs in dry cool weather, holding on to the comb and not touching the berries, so as not to erase the wax coating on the berries (spring). Harvested grapes cannot be left open under the scorching sun – this reduces its keeping quality. Before laying for storage, carefully remove dry, rotten, damaged and immature berries with small scissors.
In dark ventilated rooms: basements, “warm” attics, attics, sheds at t from 0 ° С to + 5 … + 7 ° С and humidity not higher than 80%. Under such conditions, the following storage methods are possible:
Bunches are hung on a rope by a clothespin (like linen) in a cool room, for example, in the attic. You can tie two clusters with a strong rope and throw them over the rope. Ropes are placed at different heights so that the hanging clusters of the upper rows do not touch the lower ones. The method is time consuming.
Storage on green ridges is suitable for storing a small crop. For this, clusters are cut along with part of the vine. A vine 5–6 cm long is left above the bunch, and 20–30 cm long under the bunch.
The lower part of the vine is placed in a bottle or in a jar of water with the addition of an aspirin tablet or activated charcoal. Grapes will not lose freshness for 2 months. With this storage method, sugar loss is possible.
In boxes, in trays lined with clean paper, the clusters are laid out in one layer with the ridges up and stored for 1.5-2 months. Outbreaks of fungal infections are possible, so periodically “stocks” need to be checked.
Storage of grapes in the refrigerator
In refrigerators of any brand, grapes can be stored for up to 4 months at t +2 …- 1 ° C. If there is an option “humidity control”, and it can be set to an indicator of 90-95% – up to 7 months.
Bunches are stacked on shelves with the comb up in one layer. If t -20 ..- 24 ° C can be maintained in the freezer, the berries can be stored in it. Good quality is only possible with a single freeze, so the uneaten in the freezer is no longer cleaned – it is better to freeze the berries in small portions. For freezing, fully ripe berries, preferably dark-colored varieties, are suitable. It is better to thaw frozen berries in cold water gradually – this will help to avoid tearing the tissues inside the berry.
In autumn, you need to start preparing the vine for wintering, and also, create optimal conditions for laying the buds of renewal. In autumn, the prolific vine becomes weak, since a lot of resources have been spent on ripening berries. Therefore, immediately after harvesting, be sure to feed the bushes and continue to care for the vineyard. Pour and loosen the soil, treat with drugs for diseases and pests, cut and heat for the winter.
Each of these procedures will improve the fruiting of the vine next year. And if you make it a rule to do this every autumn, then your vineyard will develop intensively, and the berries will be large every year, and the harvest will be plentiful.
Processing the vines with drugs against diseases and pests after harvesting can be carried out using chemicals, since there are no berries on the bushes. If you find pathology on the vine, immediately treat this place quickly to stop the propagation of pests and the spread of infection to the entire bush.
Watering and spring fertilizer
If the weather is not very hot, then, immediately after harvesting, grapes can not be watered. But in October, be sure to thoroughly water once. This will help prepare the bushes for wintering. In this case, be sure to water abundantly so that the roots receive enough life-giving moisture.
You can even dig grooves or stick tubes near the bushes. This will prevent water from spreading over the surface, and it will go straight to the roots. Do not allow soil compaction. To do this, loosen it regularly, this will help to preserve moisture, and as a result, it will be easier to overwinter the bushes.
For autumn top dressing, use organic fertilizers with the addition of wood ash. But do not apply too much fertilizer right away. Better to just mulch the soil at the very base of the trunks with a layer of overripe manure or compost.
Autumn pruning of grapes
Autumn is the best time for the formation of vine bushes. Pruning begins a couple of weeks after the leaves fall. It is not recommended to shorten the shoots before, since immediately after the leaf fall the photosynthesis processes are still taking place in the vine. Premature pruning will disrupt the accumulation of nutrients in the shoots, trunk and rhizome. But pulling with this procedure to the frosts themselves is also not worth it. As soon as the cold starts, the vine will become very fragile, and any operations in the vineyard will lead to breaks of shoots and other injuries.
Remove diseased and old shoots. Leave only the full and healthy ones. Moreover, their number should be one third more than required for the formation of the bush. This is in case the wintering is unfavorable and some shoots can not withstand the frost. If the winter is not too harsh, then the excess can be removed in the spring.
We shelter grapes for the winter
It is far from always necessary to cover grapes for the winter. Only if the variety is not cold-resistant or severe frosts are expected, then appropriate measures will have to be taken. Start preparing for insulation even during the pruning period. Shape the bush so that the vine is easy to bend to the level of the soil. If you are going to cover the vine in an upright position without removing it from the trellis, then form a bush arbitrarily.
Although warming the vineyard with ordinary film is not a good option. With warming, the temperature under the film rises significantly. There is also high humidity, and this is an ideal environment for the development of fungi, mold and the occurrence of rotting processes. Shelter from sawdust and foliage gives about the same result. Therefore, warm the vineyard with spruce branches. It is well ventilated and retains snow. That is, the conditions for wintering the vines will be ideal.
Grapes – a tasty and healthy delicacy, for which summer residents and gardeners are ready to make considerable efforts. But agricultural technology of culture has some features, and they should be taken into account in the pursuit of a good harvest. In order for the berries to fill with sweet and fragrant juice, the plant needs a lot of nutrients. That’s why when growing this beloved by many people, one should not forget about fertilizing.
Everyone knows that in the cold season, grapes need only good shelter from frost – it goes into the phase of sleep. Is the autumn top dressing of grapes justified in the winter? The timing and means for nutrition of the culture should be known to everyone who undertook its cultivation. Our site about farming today will pay attention to this very issue. Continue reading “Autumn Top Dressing of Grapes in the Winter: Terms and Means”→