Proper fertilizing grapevine will help you get a strong vine with rich green leaves and massive juicy bunches. In matters of viticulture, there are enough myths that are important to dispel before leaving.
Some gardeners believe that root fertilization is required only for young seedlings, and a 10-year-old plant does not need anything, since it gets everything it needs from the soil. In fact, everything is exactly the opposite. A large bush pulls out useful elements from the soil, especially strongly – during flowering and fruiting. At this time, not only nitrogen is pulled out of the soil, but also phosphorus and potassium. The young vine uses the seedling fertilizer that has been applied to the hole. Therefore, in the next couple of years, seedlings practically do not need anything.
An adult bush will need to fertilize at least 3 times. The first is a week before flowering (nitrogen, ammonia). The second is 2 weeks before the formation of the fetus. The third – 10 days before ripeness. Thanks to this scheme of application, optimal care is provided, and the vine receives the necessary minerals and trace elements.
The first time you need to fertilizing grapevine before the flowering period. It is recommended to use liquid formulations. Manure diluted in water is poured under the root (about 2 kg of mullein per bucket of water). This volume is enough for processing 1 sq. m plot. Instead of mullein, chicken droppings are also suitable, but in a lower concentration so as not to damage the roots. Typically, 40 g of droppings are taken per 10 liters of water, the volume is used per 1 sq. m.
Mineral fertilizer for the growth of grapes is a mixture of 10 liters of water, 65 g of nitrophos, 5-7 g of boric acid. These rates are suitable for the first feeding. For the second treatment, which is scheduled 2 weeks before fruit set, formulations with nitrogen are selected. For 10 liters of water, take up to 10 g of potassium magnesia and 20 g of ammonium nitrate. The volume is spent on 1 sq. m. The second feeding is carried out in a week with a similar composition. The third feeding is planned 2 weeks before harvest. It is necessary to increase the mass of the bunches and improve the taste characteristics. Use 10 l of water with the addition of 20 g of potassium and the same amount of superphosphate. Manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 works well.
The listed processing methods are the best if you want to get a high yield, tasty berries and a hardy vine.
Choosing between leaf and root method
Plants receive useful substances not only from the ground, but also they are absorbed by the leaves. For this top dressing must be well dissolved in water. Comparing what foliar (leaf) dressing for grapes is better than root fertilization, the following aspects are noted:
- the soil dissolves the introduced substances for a long time, so they get to the plant after a certain time. The leaves instantly absorb trace elements, they are absorbed almost immediately, which is noticeable after a couple of days. The assimilation of nutrients is doubled;
- the cost of foliar feeding is half as much, since the concentration of solutions is reduced and the volume obtained is enough to process a larger area;
- there is no reaction of the soil with fertilizer. During contact with the ground, some components of the bait dissolve before reaching the plant, others give a negative reaction;
- spraying is faster than watering each bush. The consumption of water, fertilizers, labor costs is reduced.
In addition to the advantages, it is worth mentioning the disadvantage of foliar treatment – the rapid weathering of the liquid from the leaves. Therefore, when choosing which fertilizers are needed for planting grapes and subsequent care, it is important to approach the solution of the problem in an integrated manner – take root dressings as a basis, and as a supplement – on a leaf.
When and why soil and plants are cultivated
Some summer residents do not think about how timely and correctly they apply complex universal fertilizer for grapes. As a result, the soil is impregnated with nitrate, potassium, ammonia and other mixtures in an uncontrolled amount. This approach not only harms the plant, but also fraught with a deterioration in product quality.
To understand what the vine really needs in a particular period, scientific methods and recognition of signs of deterioration of the plant’s condition will help. The most expensive way is to test the composition of the soil and grape juice in a laboratory. With an accuracy of 85%, the results will show what the soil is lacking and when to add additives. The analysis is carried out every couple of years.
A less expensive option is to evaluate the appearance of the vine. The complexity of this option lies in the variability of the reasons affecting the deterioration of the state of leaves, stems and bunches. Given that the data obtained are distorted by weather conditions, and there can be many reasons, this method is not the best.
The third way is to collect leaves from apparently healthy shrubs and one that looks bad. The laboratory technicians will compare the analyzes and tell you what is missing in the soil. Leaf analysis can be done every 2 months before the next fertilization.